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Josiah Morgan
Josiah Morgan

Vince Flynn Transfer Of Power Epub Converter


Implantable devices harvesting energy from biological sources and based on electrochemical transducers are currently receiving high attention. The energy collected from the body can be utilized to activate various microelectronic devices. This article is an overview of the recent research activity in the area of enzyme-based biofuel cells implanted in biological tissue and operating in vivo. The electrical power extracted from the biological sources presents use for activating microelectronic devices for biomedical applications. While some microelectronic devices can work within a fairly broad range of electrical operating conditions, others, such as pacemakers, require precise voltage levels and voltage regulation for correct operation. Thus, certain classes of electronic devices powered by implantable energy sources will require careful attention not only to energy and power considerations, but also to voltage scaling and regulation. This requires appropriate interfacing between the energy harvesting device and the energy consuming microelectronic device. The paper focuses on the problems in the present technology as well as offers their potential solutions. Lastly, perspectives and future applications of the implanted biofuel cells are also discussed. The considered examples include a pacemaker and a wireless signal transfer system powered by a implantable biofuel cell extracting electrical energy from biological sources.




vince flynn transfer of power epub converter


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The second approach based on electronic interface devices such as charge pumps and other forms of DC-DC convertors has already been applied for the activation of a wireless transmitting electronic device; however, using nonimplantable enzyme-based (76,77) or microbial biofuel cells (73). The application of an interface device to increase the voltage is rather well-known (78), however it should be remembered that the voltage increase is achieved at the expense of the current consumed by the charge pump, thus putting additional demand on the current output of the biofuel cell. Implantable microsize electrical energy generators connected to an electrical interface can be used effectively for activating microelectronic devices operating in the short-pulses regime, using the time between pulses for the accumulation of energy (34). However, an implantable biofuel cell connected to a charge pump and used for the continuous operation of implantable biomedical devices, for example, a pacemaker, requires constant current production sufficient to keep the device continuously running. To satisfy the high current demand for the operation of the charge pump, large biocatalytic electrodes (buckypaper with a geometric area of 6 cm2) modified with PQQ-GDH on the anode, and laccase on the cathode, were used in a biofuel cell filled with human serum solution and operating under conditions mimicking human physiological bloodflow (79). The biofuel cell was connected to a variable load resistance and polarization was measured, demonstrating the open circuitry voltage, Voc, ca. 470 mV and short circuitry current, Isc, ca. 5 mA. The biofuel cell mimicking an implantable device was connected to the charge pump and DC-DC converter interface circuit, which was further connected to a pacemaker (Figure 10c). To analyze the pacemaker performance, the pacemaker output leads were connected to an implantable loop recorder (ILR), a subcutaneous electrocardiographic (ECG) monitoring device. In the present setup, it was used as a medically relevant analyzer of the electrical pulses produced by the pacemaker receiving the power from the biofuel cell. The loop recorder output was read wirelessly by the sensor device of the Medtronic CareLink Programmer, Model 2090 (Medtronic, Minneapolis, MN, USA), typically used for the programming and maintenance of pacemakers and loop recorders after implantation (80). Two borderline indistinguishable functions were generated by the ILR upon registering the electrical pulses produced by the pacemaker: one from the pacemaker powered by a standard battery, and one from the pacemaker powered by the implantable biofuel cell. The profound similarities in these two results confirm the correct pacemaker operation while receiving power from the external biofuel cell through the charge pump and DC-DC converter interface circuit. This approach for powering the pacemaker using a single biofuel cell is already practically applicable for future biomedical applications. Still additional research and engineering are necessary to solve remaining major problems. The biocatalytic electrodes presently used in the fluidic system operating in vitro are too large to be implanted in a human body, thus current efficiency should be increased to allow for smaller electrodes.


The issue of the small current insufficient for the continuous operation of bioelectronic devices such as pacemakers might be not important for powering electronic devices switchable in the active mode only for a short time with relatively long periods of time in a sleeping mode. One exceptional example of such interfacing of the implanted biofuel cell with electronic devices for their short-time activation was reported recently (64). The biofuel cell was implanted in the abdominal cavity of a rat, with the wiring to the external devices organized on the head of the animal (Figure 13). The biofuel cell electrical output was interfaced with an ultra-low power boost converter (another kind of a charge pump allowing accumulation and release of the electrical energy in short pulses) and then connected to a light-emitting diode (LED) or a digital thermometer as example electronic devices. The system allowed flashes of the LED and thermometer operation after periods of energy accumulation by the boost converter. This technology cannot be applied for activating biomedical devices requiring continuous power supply, for example, pacemakers (note that even though pacemakers produce short electrical pulses, they must be continuously electrically active) (9,10). However, it might be sufficient for biosensing and data transmitting when the electronic devices operate in short periods of time separated by mute time periods, allowing for the accumulation of electrical energy. Additionally, this approach could potentially be used for activating implantable medical biosensing devises, monitoring physiological parameters and periodically transmitting the data. For example, enzyme-based biocatalytic electrodes oxidizing glucose and fructose were implanted in an orange and the in situ-produced electrical power was used to activate a wireless transmitting device (84) (Figure 14). The voltage management was organized with a charge pump and energy was accumulated in a capacitor until the voltage reached the threshold value required by the transmitting module. The wireless signal transmission powered by the biofuel cell implanted in the orange was performed in short pulses separated by long time periods when the system accumulated energy. 350c69d7ab


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